Knowledge Base

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The Big Policy Canvas Knowledge Base is a state-of-the-art, online and dynamic repository that functions as an accumulator uniting all the knowledge produced during the project. It is structured along the three dimensions of needs, trends and assets and furthermore offers a mapping among them by defining how they are interconnected and how they influence each other.

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By using social media in governmental context, a new form of interaction between citizens and government can be established. The social media data can be used to collect useful information about citizens’ needs and opinions, as well as integrate citizens directly in the decision making process. Some governmental institutions also use their own social media accounts and post content online. [1][2]

In: Trends

In 2001, the industry analyst Douglas Laney at Gartner described data management challenges along the three dimensions volumes, velocity and variety in the E-commerce branch. Volumes stands for the quite huge increase of volumes of data, Velocity for increased point-of-interaction speed and the pace of data generated by interactions and used to support interactions. Data Variety means variety of incompatible data formats, non-aligned data structures and inconsistent data semantics. This 3-V-model has been widely used attempting to define big data since this publication in 2001. [1]

In: Trends

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a possibility to improve policy and decision making and can be understood as the automation of intelligent and human-like behaviour. The most important techniques to support specific cases of indeed high complex policy making processes are decision support and optimisation techniques, game theory, data and opinion mining, agent-based simulation and visual scenario based evaluations. [1]

In: Trends

By now, the most promising application of artificial intelligence is the use of machine learning as a subfield of AI. The Encyclopaedia Britannica states that machine learning is concerned with the implementation of computer software that can learn autonomously. [1]

In: Trends

Gartner assumes that by 2020 modern BI and analytics platform components will deliver smart, governed, search- and visual-based data discovery capabilities. Natural-language generation and artificial intelligence will be a standard feature of 90% of modern BI platforms and organisations that offer users access to a curated catalogue of internal and external data will realise twice the business value from analytics investments than those that do not. Gartner outlined fifteen critical capabilities by a BI and Analytics Platform [1]:

In: Trends

Predictive analytics brings together advanced analytics capabilities. It extracts information from existing data sets in order to determine patterns and predict future impacts and trends. It forecasts what might happen in the future with an acceptable level of reliability, and includes what-if scenarios and risk assessments.[1]
Data analytics encompasses techniques such as regression analysis, pattern matching, forecasting, multivariate statistics, predictive modelling and forecasting. [2]

In: Trends

There are various definitions of the Internet of Things (IoT). The Internet Engineering Task Force says Internet of Things’ basic idea is to connect electronical and non-electronical objects to provide seamless communication and contextual services by them through e.g. RFID tags, sensors, actuators or mobile phone. The latter is related to the term “things”. The term “Internet” considers the TCP/IP suite and non-TCP/IP suite at the same time. [1]

In: Trends

The pressure to redesign city infrastructures is strong, since climate change and the problem of allocation are defining new requirements, which will not be met through cosmetic and maintenance repairs. In particular, energy infrastructures like water, waste or recycling are affected by this issue.
The following description draws a picture for future smart cities.

In: Trends

The term Open Data means that data and content can be freely used, modified and shared by anyone for any purpose. Open Data is accessible for everyone and useable without any restrictions. [1]
Open Government Data refers to the wide range of information that public sector bodies collect, produce, reproduce and disseminate while accomplishing their institutional tasks. [2]

In: Trends

Privacy by design is an approach that promotes privacy and data protection compliance throughout the whole system engineering process. The Information & Privacy Commissioner of Ontario has taken a leading role in developing the privacy by design concept, establishing a reference framework of “Seven foundational principles of privacy by design” with respect to a proactive, transparent and user-centric engineering process. [1][2]
The 7 principles are:
•    Proactive not Reactive; Preventative not Remedial
•    Privacy as the Default setting

In: Trends

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