Employees are a key factor when it comes to the introduction of change. As already mentioned, they are the ones who ultimately implement the policies. This further emphasizes the relevance of their qualifications. But what specific competencies are lacking? What direction shoul personnel development take? Will it be enough in the future to be reasonably computer literate or should employees in the public secto be trained in such things as programming?
Establish target-oriented personnel development
In addition to recruiting new employees, personnel development should not be neglected. Existing personnel should be trained to help them handle the challenge of new technologies and consequently changes in organisational environment. Personnel development measures have to be established to support employees’ acceptance and the acquisition of competences connected to ICT, preparing them for possible challenges.
One interviewee highlighted the relevance of trained and also creative staff as one of the most important factors for an efficient policy making process. In our survey, this need - together with “Deeper understanding of IT potentials and IT processes” - had the highest relevance score.
Without the employees’ support, there cannot be sustainable and qualitative good changes, which makes it important to involve them in change processes and develop them, if possible, following a bottom-up approach.
Considering the policy cycle, the recruitment and training of the staff is of great importance relating to the implementation of a policy. However, it influences also the other parts of the cycle.
 Van der Voet, J. (2014), The effectiveness and specificity of change management in a public organization: Transformational leadership and a bureaucratic organizational structure, European Management Journal, 32(3), 373-382, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2013.10.001 .
 Dukić, D., Dukić, G., Bertović, N. (2016), Public administration employees’ readiness and acceptance of e-government. Findings from a Croatian survey, Information Development, 35(5), 525-539.
 Bundesministerium des Innern (2014), Digitale Verwaltung 2020 – Regierungsprogramm, https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/downloads/DE/publikationen/2014/regierungsprogramm-digitale-verwaltung-2020.html, retrieved December 17, 2017.
 Klinger, D., Sabet, G. (2006), Toward a New Perspective in Strategic Human Resource Management in the Public Sector, in: Farazmad, A. (ed.), Strategic Public Administration: Building and Managing Human Capital for the 21st Century, Volume 1, 43-66.
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