The Data Governance Institute defines Data Governance as a system of decision rights and accountabilities for information-related processes, executed according to agreed-upon models, which describe who can take what actions with what information, and when, under what circumstances, using what methods. It encompasses strategies and technologies used to make sure organisations data stays in compliance with regulatory and legal requirements.
Security by design is an approach in software engineering that promotes to design software from the ground up to be secure.
Core pillars of information security are confidentiality (only allow access to data for which the user is permitted), integrity (ensure data is not tampered or altered by unauthorized users) and availability (ensure systems and data are available to authorized users when they need it). 
Privacy by design is an approach that promotes privacy and data protection compliance throughout the whole system engineering process. The Information & Privacy Commissioner of Ontario has taken a leading role in developing the privacy by design concept, establishing a reference framework of “Seven foundational principles of privacy by design” with respect to a proactive, transparent and user-centric engineering process. 
The 7 principles are:
• Proactive not Reactive; Preventative not Remedial
• Privacy as the Default setting
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are an integral component of public administrations performance measurement systems. In general, KPIs are assessment criteria that refer to the assessment dimensions Input, Process, Output, Impact and Outcome. 
The term Open Data means that data and content can be freely used, modified and shared by anyone for any purpose. Open Data is accessible for everyone and useable without any restrictions. 
Open Government Data refers to the wide range of information that public sector bodies collect, produce, reproduce and disseminate while accomplishing their institutional tasks. 
The pressure to redesign city infrastructures is strong, since climate change and the problem of allocation are defining new requirements, which will not be met through cosmetic and maintenance repairs. In particular, energy infrastructures like water, waste or recycling are affected by this issue.
The following description draws a picture for future smart cities.