Public administration is a strictly standardised and structured environment, which makes it calculable and predictable to a certain extent. This includes, for example, a sufficient number of qualified employees. Also for the public administration employees in our focus group, this strict organisational framework seems to be important in order to complete their work and task. On the other hand, it would be desirable that this frame allows certain freedoms within it. This (limited) flexibility can be helpful in responding to unexpected developments.
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The Big Policy Canvas Knowledge Base is a state-of-the-art, online and dynamic repository that functions as an accumulator uniting all the knowledge produced during the project. It is structured along the three dimensions of needs, trends and assets and furthermore offers a mapping among them by defining how they are interconnected and how they influence each other.
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The head of the administration modernisation division on a regional level confirmed that one of the most important needs of public administration is cooperative working. Hierarchy is an important part in public administration but it also represents a limitation for its work. The more complex social problems become, the more complex are the governmental answers to them. Public administrations should be more open and flexible in the cooperation between different stakeholders, partners and hierarchy levels.
Cloud Computing is a model that enables ubiquitous access to a shared pool of configurable technological assets available on-demand in a virtualised environment. Cloud services are remotely managed by cloud service providers and can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal effort or service provider interaction. It can potentially achieve coherence and economies of scale.
The cloud model encompasses the four deployment models Public, Private, Hybrid and Community and the following three delivery models :
Software as a Service
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are an integral component of public administrations performance measurement systems. In general, KPIs are assessment criteria that refer to the assessment dimensions Input, Process, Output, Impact and Outcome. 
The Data Governance Institute defines Data Governance as a system of decision rights and accountabilities for information-related processes, executed according to agreed-upon models, which describe who can take what actions with what information, and when, under what circumstances, using what methods. It encompasses strategies and technologies used to make sure organisations data stays in compliance with regulatory and legal requirements.
Evidence-based policy refers to policy decisions that are informed by objective evidence. Without evidence, policy-makers need to fall back on intuition, ideology, or conventional wisdom.
Originally, the concept has evolved in the medicine, encompassing the toolbox of quantitative experimental methods such as randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental trials to support medical decisions.
New technologies have great influence on work and work processes, as we know them today. For example, new technologies offer the possibility of mobile work, can optimise the work process and make it more economical. 
Nudge or Nudging in governmental context can be seen as a concept of libertarian paternalism, which is about improving decision making. Nudging comes from the behavioural economics and the basic assumption is that people are not able to make the right decisions. Therefore, the behaviour of individuals should be influenced in a predictable way. Experts decide what is the best possible decision and try to steer the people into this direction. The people still have the option to choose an alternative, which makes this concept different to classical paternalism. 
This need is directly related to the need of cross-linked information exchange. An efficient exchange of information can only take place if the used technologies are coherent and compatible with one another. Organisational arrangements, as well as uniform technical systems and software can ensure compatibility and interoperability, help to avoid media interruptions and, in consequence, make policy making more efficient, effective and sustainable.