For making administrations not only more efficient but also more effective, activities and their costs should be closely linked to strategic outcomes and broader policy objectives. A monitoring with restricted focus on financial aspects in order to assess success of public services and political programmes is not enough. To reach a holistic view on success, it is more important to consider financial ratios interlinked with quality data, impact measurements and other performance indicators.
About this tool
The Big Policy Canvas Knowledge Base is a state-of-the-art, online and dynamic repository that functions as an accumulator uniting all the knowledge produced during the project. It is structured along the three dimensions of needs, trends and assets and furthermore offers a mapping among them by defining how they are interconnected and how they influence each other.
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Taking into account the complexities and importance of policy making, scientists and policy makers should be collaborating to improve outcomes of public administration. Insofar, policy makers and researchers have different mentalities, languages, time horizons and imperatives. Ways of bridging the gap between both of them are necessary. Organisational changes, knowledge sharing and new platforms for cooperation can be helpful to close the gap and support collaboration between science and administration.
Information is an asset that is constitutive to the effective and efficient supply of public services. To ensure that information meets the purposes for which it is intended, it must be accurate, accessible, valid, timely, complete and relevant (relevance especially means regional explicit information). 
In all the interviews that we conducted, it has become very clear and verified that information plays a very important role in policy making processes.
Knowledge management affects the organisation´s technical assets as well as the employees’ willingness to share knowledge. Knowledge is an essential resource in public administrations and has to be stored in order to not get lost for the organisation. As a main reason for the loss of knowledge, participants of our focus group with a socialpolitical background named the retirement of employees. That is why it is important to build up a learning culture, to ensure and promote knowledge transfer within the organisation, as well as with relevant stakeholders.
Probably one of the biggest needs for administration is to keep up with the technical innovation. To cope with the production of huge volumes of data is a technical problem as well as a big challenge for the staff. On the one hand, there should be established technical infrastructure for new policies and the increasing number of data, on the other hand, the staff needs to be trained and able to manage data and produce “good” data.
This need is primarily about developing and understanding of the technical processes in the administration. Technological potential has to be identified and understood, thereby reducing employees´ fears of technology and possible consequences. A basic understanding of technology in administration can help make the benefits of technology fully available.
Concerns about insufficient security and privacy are ubiquitous when it comes to the use of new technical possibilities - especially in public management. Besides the advantages and potentials, digitisation is associated with some technical and non-technical obstacles. Data protection and information security management can help to preserve trust in government. 
All interviewees stated that there is room for improvement in the technical infrastructure. The used technical infrastructure is partly outdated and does not meet current requirements, a fact that consequently increases administrative costs and leads to unnecessary bureaucracy. In addition, the lack of good infrastructure makes digitalisation difficult.
This need is directly related to the need of cross-linked information exchange. An efficient exchange of information can only take place if the used technologies are coherent and compatible with one another. Organisational arrangements, as well as uniform technical systems and software can ensure compatibility and interoperability, help to avoid media interruptions and, in consequence, make policy making more efficient, effective and sustainable. 
Similar to the standardisation of processes, standardising data management can also provide significant benefits to the public administration, such as time savings and efficiency gains. It is important for the public administration to know what data is available and where it is located. For this purpose, a data monitoring should be established. The need for standardised data management has been confirmed in almost all conducted interviews.